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漫画在线Scratches to Sketches

Monday, 1 April 2019

World s first self powered Q Beta Prototype with silicon crystal graphite…



漫画在线Hi - I'm reading "The Hidden History of the Human Race: The Condensed Edition of Forbidden Archeology" by Michael A. Cremo, Richard L. Thompson and wanted to share this quote with you.


"This pattern of data suppression has been going on for a long time. In 1880, J. D. Whitney, the state geologist of California, published a lengthy review of advanced stone tools found in California gold mines. The implements, including spear points and stone mortars and pestles, were found deep in mine shafts, underneath thick, undisturbed layers of lava, in formations ranging from 9 million to over 55 million years old. W. H. Holmes of the Smithsonian Institution, one of the most vocal critics of the California finds, wrote: "Perhaps if Professor Whitney had fully appreciated the story of human evolution as it is understood today, he would have hesitated to announce the conclusions formulated [that humans existed in very ancient times in North America], notwithstanding the imposing array of testimony with which he was confronted." In other words, if the facts do not agree with the favored theory, then such facts, even an imposing array of them, must be discarded."


Start reading it for free: http://amzn.eu/1EpjdYy

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Download Kindle for Android, iOS, PC, Mac and more

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Quote from Eduard Punset:

"There is a tension between what is good for someone and what they want to do. This is because people, especially older people, like to do things as they've always done them. The problem is that when the brain develops ingrained habits, it doesn't need to think anymore. Things get done quickly and efficiently on automatic pilot, often in a very advantageous way. This creates a tendency to stick to routines, and the only way of breaking these is to confront the brain with new information. "

Saturday, 30 March 2019

AW Lake / Wuh Lax : Will Ye No Come Back Again - Books as Old Friends



JAPANESE PROVERB


Only staying active will make you want to live a hundred years. 


———————————

IKIGAI


Why do some people know what they want and have a passion for life, while others languish in confusion? 


"At some point in our conversation, the mysterious word ikigai came up. This Japanese concept, which translates roughly as "the happiness of always being busy," is like logotherapy, but it goes a step beyond. It also seems to be one way of explaining the extraordinary longevity of the Japanese, especially on the island of Okinawa, where there are 24.55 people over the age of 100 for every 100,000 inhabitants—far more than the global average."

———————————

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 


Héctor García is a citizen of Japan, where he has lived for over a decade, and of Spain, where he was born. He is the author of several books about Japanese culture, including two worldwide bestsellers, A Geek in Japan and Ikigai. A former software engineer, he worked at CERN in Switzerland before moving to Japan. 


Francesc Miralles is an award-winning and internationally bestselling author of books about how to live well, together with the novels Love in Small Letters and Wabi-Sabi. Alongside Héctor García, he was welcomed to Okinawa in Japan, where the inhabitants live for longer than in any other place in the world. There they had the chance to interview more than a hundred villagers about their philosophy for a long and happy life.

Friday, 2 November 2018

Call for Truly Protective Limits for Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields

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"the ICNIRP guidelines do not cover long-term exposure and low-intensity effects (and) …are insufficient to protect public health"….

"Numerous recent scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines. Effects include increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive system, learning and memory deficits, neurological disorders, and negative impacts on
general well-being in humans. Damage goes well beyond
 the human race, as there is growing evidence of harmful effects to both plant and animal life."

https://www.emfcall.org/the-emf-call/

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Call for Truly Protective Limits for Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz)

ICNIRP's opinion and guidelines are unscientific and protect industry, not public health


Download The EMF Call as pdf  EN | FR | DE | ES | IT | RU | FI | SL | GR


In order to protect the public and the environment from the known harmful effects from electromagnetic fields (EMF) we ask the United Nations, the World Health Organization and all governments not to accept the ICNIRP guidelines. They are not protective, rather they pose a serious risk to human health and the environment since they allow harmful exposure to the world population, including the most vulnerable, under the unscientific pretext that they are "protective".

Background

The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) issued draft Guidelines on 11th July 2018 for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz).1 These guidelines are unscientific, obsolete and do not represent an objective evaluation of the available science on effects from this form of radiation. They ignore the vast amount of scientific findings that clearly and convincingly show harmful effects at intensities well below ICNIRP guidelines.2 The guidelines are inadequate to protect humans and the environment.

ICNIRP guidelines only protect against acute thermal effects from very short and intense exposure. The guidelines do not protect against harmful effects from low-intensity and long-term exposure, such as cancer, reproductive harm, or effects on the nervous system, although these effects are convincingly shown to appear from chronic exposure at intensities below ICNIRP limits.2,3

In May, 2011, the World HealthOrganization's cancer agency, the International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC) concluded that radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz is a "possible" human carcinogen (Group 2B).4 ICNIRP ignores this importantconclusion. On the contrary, in the past seven years, the evidence base forcarcinogenicity has increased substantially.2,3,5-10

244 scientists state that ICNIRP guidelines are not protective

The ICNIRPopinion is not in line with that of the scientific community that has published peer-reviewed research on EMF biologic or health effects. Since 2015, 244 scientists have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal11 and are of the opinion that more protective EMF guidelines than ICNIRP's arenecessary to protect public health:

"the ICNIRP guidelines do not cover long-term exposure and low-intensity effects (and) …are insufficient to protect public health"….

"Numerous recent scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines. Effects include increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive system, learning and memory deficits, neurological disorders, and negative impacts on
general well-being in humans. Damage goes well beyond
the human race, as there is growing evidence of harmful effects to both plant and animal life."

ICNIRP's mandate needs to be questioned

ICNIRP's mandate to issue exposure guidelines needs to be seriously questioned. ICNIRP is not independent of industry ties as it claims.12,13 Its opinions are not objective, not representative of the body of scientific evidence, but are biased in favor of industry. It is obvious from their reluctance to consider scientific findings of harm that ICNIRP protects industry, not the public health, nor the environment.

ICNIRP's first chairman and other experts have or have had financial ties to the telecom, military and/or power industry.12-15 Their first chairman managed to head the WHO EMF project using WHO as an umbrella to promote ICNIRP guidelines as the world standard. That person was also responsible for channeling funding from the telecom industry to the WHO EMF project for several years.13,14

New truly protective guidelines are needed

Weask the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and all governments to support the development and consideration of medical guidelines16,that are independent of conflict of interests in terms of direct or indirectties to industry, that represent the state of medical science, and that aretruly protective.  

Date: October 30, 2018

Note: The signatories to this call have signed as individuals, but that does
not necessarily mean that this represents the views of their employers or the
professional organizations they are affiliated with.

Prof. David O. Carpenter, MD, Director, Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA

Dr. Lennart Hardell, MD, Ph.D, Department ofOncology, University Hospital, ?rebro, Sweden (retired), The Environment and Cancer Research Foundation, ?rebro, Sweden

Dr. Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D. School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Dr. Gerd Oberfeld, MD, Public Health Department, Salzburg Government, Austria

1 https://www.icnirp.org/en/activities/public-consultation/consultation-1.html

2 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749118310157

3 www.bioinitiative.org

4 https://monographs.iarc.fr/iarc-monographs-on-the-evaluation-of-carcinogenic-risks-to-humans-14/

5 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9218486/

6 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/15368378.2015.1043557

7 https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/about_ntp/trpanel/2018/march/tr595peerdraft.pdf

8 https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/about_ntp/trpanel/2018/march/tr596peerdraft.pdf

9 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118304973

10 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118300367

11 https://emfscientist.org/

12 https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/reveh.2016.31.issue-4/reveh-2016-0060/reveh-2016-0060.pdf

13 https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijo.2017.4046

14 https://microwavenews.com/CT.html

15 https://microwavenews.com/news-center/iarc-drops-anders-ahlbom-rf%E2%80%93cancer-panel

16 https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/reveh.2016.31.issue-3/reveh-2016-0011/reveh-2016-0011.pdf

Wednesday, 31 October 2018

Kwekwecnewtxw: Protect the Inlet – Four Sentenced to Jail and Taken Into Custody Today For Trans Mountain Pipeline Opposition

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30 October 2018, Unceded Coast Salish Territories (Vancouver, BC): Four women were just sentenced to 14 days in jail and taken away by bailiffs after blocking construction at a Trans Mountain pipeline Burnaby construction site in August.

Kathryn Cass (66), Deb Wood (64), Kira McLean (24), and Brenda Morrice (57), pled guilty to criminal contempt on October 19th after being charged with violating a court-ordered injunction meant to protect construction on the pipeline and tanker project.

Defence lawyer Donna Turko is appealing all four sentences and will be working to have Protectors released on bail pending appeal. She is anticipating a possible bail hearing with the BC Court of Appeal as early as tomorrow morning.

On October 19th, the judge reserved sentencing until October 30th after a request from defense counsel for a written ruling in order to appeal any custodial sentence.

Despite the August 30th Federal Court of Appeal ruling that quashed the approval of and stopped construction on the federal pipeline project, Protectors who blocked Trans Mountain construction sites in late August are still subject to the Crown Prosecution Services recommendation of up to 28 days in jail to prevent more protest.

There are now 20 Protectors who have already served, or are serving, jail time for their opposition to the pipeline, including Order of Canada recipient and Vancouver councillor Jean Swanson. Since March, over 240 people have been arrested while blocking construction on the Trans Mountain pipeline and tanker project.

"On August 24th, I defied an injunction granted by the Canadian court while I was on unceded land belonging to Coast Salish Nations," said Kathryn Cass outside the BC Supreme Court on October 19th. "In my heart, I was following laws that have been in place long before my European ancestors occupied this land. It is my understanding that those laws include taking care of the health of our land and water."

From April until June, penalties for blockading Kinder Morgan's gates consisted of increasing fines and community service, until the Crown Prosecution Service petitioned the court for sentences of jail time to deter Protectors from taking action. The Crown Prosecutor Monte Rattan argued in June that senior citizens willing to be arrested for civil disobedience constituted a "sinister challenge to the authority of the court."

After the Federal Court of Appeal ruling on August 30th that quashed construction on the pipeline and tanker project, Protectors argued in court that the Crown's jail deterrent should no longer stand, as there is no longer any basis to re-offend. The court has rejected that argument, and continues to send Protectors to jail.

Tuesday, 30 October 2018

Apple iPad Pro Announcement 2018 Liveblog | WIRED

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Apple Liveblog: Get Live Updates on New iPads and MacBooks

On Tuesday, October 30, Apple is expected to debut some new hardware. At the top of the list of anticipated announcements is a refresh of the iPad Pro. The powerful tablet, which comes in two sizes and is optimized for creative professionals, is likely to get an update that shrinks the bezels, adds USB-C charging, and introduces a new size Pro with an 11-inch display.

Also expected: a new ultraportable MacBook to take the place of the aging MacBook Air. Yeah, we've been saying that for a while, but recent reports are making it seem like this Goldilocks PC might be dropping this week.

Apple's live event starts at 10 am EDT. That's 7 am Pacific, which is blisteringly early for a big news event. But we have delicious coffee, so we'll be liveblogging all the action, posting live updates as the New York City event unfolds. Come back right here to this post to read our liveblog starting at 9:30 am EDT / 6:30 am PDT. We'll discuss the latest news leading up to the main event, so join us to get an early start. This page will switch to our liveblog once we begin.

You can watch live video of Apple's big show on the internet. Why do we publish a liveblog even though you can watch a video stream? Because we love liveblogs, that's why. You probably love liveblogs too. So join us here starting at (yawn) 6:30 am PDT, 9:30 am EDT. Apple's presentation then begins at 7 am PDT, 10 am EDT.

Apple Store Down Ahead of Today's Event in New York City - Mac Rumors

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Apple Store Down Ahead of Today's Event in New York City

Apple has taken down its online store ahead of today's event in New York, scheduled to begin 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, Howard Gilman Opera House.


Apple's October event will focus on products not introduced at the iPhone-centric event in September. On that occasion, Apple failed to take down its sitemap XML leading up to the event, resulting in a raft of major leaks ahead of the keynote. That's not the case this time around.

We're still awaiting multiple product refreshes before the end of 2018, including updates to several Mac models and the iPad Pro, which are likely to see a debut at the event.

2018 iPad Pro models are expected to adopt an iPhone X-style design with no Home button, slimmer bezels, and a TrueDepth camera system that will enable Face ID for biometric authentication. We could also see a redesigned Apple Pencil with new gesture and swipe features.

Along with new iPad Pro models, we're also expecting refreshes to the MacBook line. Refreshed 12-inch MacBooks are said to be in the works, and according to rumors, Apple has developed a low-cost notebook with a Retina display that could be positioned as an updated MacBook Air.


The Mac mini, which has not been updated for 1,475 days, is expected to be refreshed for the first time since 2014. We don't know a lot about what to expect for the Mac mini update, but upgraded internals and faster processors are certain.

Apple typically streams the event live on its website and on Apple TV, but for those who are unable to watch, MacRumors will be providing full event coverage both on MacRumors.com and through our MacRumorsLive Twitter account.

Readers who can't follow the event live and are interested in avoiding all of the announcements until Apple's posts the full video online can bookmark this page, where we'll post a spoiler-free link once it's up.

Venice under five feet of water as the city suffers its worst floods in 10 years - ITV News

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Venice under five feet of water as the city suffers its worst floods in 10 years

The Italian city of Venice was engulfed with water after high tides and strong winds caused the most severe flooding for a decade.

Tourists and residents donned high boots to navigate the streets of the lagoon city after water levels rose more than five feet.

The water exceeded the raised walkways normally put out in flooded areas of Venice.

Tourists and residents donned high boots to navigate the streets. Credit: AP

The flooding prompted transport officials to close the city's water bus system, except to outlying islands.

The city, famous for its canals, gondolas and beautiful churches, is frequently overwhelmed by water in the period from October to December, but the recent flooding was particularly heavy.

The peak water level was the highest it has reached in the city since December 2008, officials said.

People walk in a flooded St. Mark's Square in Venice, Italy. Credit: AP

The vast expanse of St Mark's Square was transformed into a lake, and raised walkways were laid out in front of the Doge's Palace and in other parts of the city.

Runners in Sunday's Venice Marathon also had to battle the flooding, but were undeterred as they splashed their way through ankle-deep water.

pic.twitter.com/ut0cqViSdB

— Cuan Walker (@runwithcuan) October 28, 2018" data-on-all-screens="true" style="max-width: 100%;">

Conditions today in Venice Marathon pic.twitter.com/ut0cqViSdB

— Cuan Walker (@runwithcuan) October 28, 2018

Much of Italy is under alert for flooding from heavy rains, a problem exacerbated by a lack of maintenance of the country's many river beds.

High winds toppled trees and killed passers-by in four incidents in Naples, Lazio and Liguria.

A woman attempts to remove water from her shop in the flooded streets of Venice. Credit: AP

Officials closed major tourist attractions early in Rome, including the Colosseum and Roman Forum, because of heavy rains.

The Interior Ministry urged officials in storm-struck regions, about half of the country, to consider closing schools and offices for a second day on Tuesday.

Monday, 29 October 2018

IBM to buy Red Hat for $34B in cash and debt, taking a bigger leap into hybrid cloud | TechCrunch

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IBM to buy Red Hat for $34B in cash and debt, taking a bigger leap into hybrid cloud

After rumors flew around this weekend, IBM today confirmed that it would acquire open source, cloud software business Red Hat for $190 per share in cash, working out to a total value of $34 billion. IBM said the deal has already been approved by the boards of directors of both IBM and Red Hat but is still subject to Red Hat shareholder and regulatory approvals. If all goes as planned, the acquisition is expected to close in the latter half of 2019.

The deal is all about IBM, which has long continued to rely on its legacy server business, taking a bigger bet on the cloud, and very specifically cloud services that blend on-premises and cloud-based architectures — something that the two companies have already been working on together since May of this year (which now might be looked at as a test drive). Red Hat will be a distinct unit within IBM's Hybrid Cloud team — which is already a $19 billion business for IBM, the company said — and it will continue to focus on open-source software. 

"The acquisition of Red Hat is a game-changer. It changes everything about the cloud market," said Ginni Rometty, IBM Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, in a statement. "IBM will become the world's number-one hybrid cloud provider, offering companies the only open cloud solution that will unlock the full value of the cloud for their businesses."

The combined businesses will be able to offer software in services spanning Linux, containers, Kubernetes, multi-cloud management, and cloud management and automation, IBM said. IBM also added that together the companies will continue to build partnerships with multiple cloud providers, including AWS, Microsoft's Azure, Google Cloud, Alibaba and others, alongside the IBM Cloud.

As Josh Constine notes here, it's one of the biggest-ever tech acquisitions, and arguably the biggest that is dedicated primarily to software. (Dell acquired EMC for $67 billion, to pick up software but also a substantial hardware and storage business.)

While companies like Amazon have gone all-in on cloud, in many cases, a lot of enterprises are making the move gradually — IBM cites stats that estimate that some 80 percent of business workloads "have yet to move to the cloud, held back by the proprietary nature of today's cloud market." Buying Red Hat will help IBM better tap into an opportunity to address that.

"Most companies today are only 20 percent along their cloud journey, renting compute power to cut costs," she continued. "The next 80 percent is about unlocking real business value and driving growth. This is the next chapter of the cloud. It requires shifting business applications to hybrid cloud, extracting more data and optimizing every part of the business, from supply chains to sales."

On top of that, it will give IBM a much stronger footing in open source software, the core of what Red Hat builds and deploys today.

"Open source is the default choice for modern IT solutions, and I'm incredibly proud of the role Red Hat has played in making that a reality in the enterprise," said Jim Whitehurst, President and CEO, Red Hat, in a statement. "Joining forces with IBM will provide us with a greater level of scale, resources and capabilities to accelerate the impact of open source as the basis for digital transformation and bring Red Hat to an even wider audience –  all while preserving our unique culture and unwavering commitment to open source innovation."

While IBM competes against the likes of Amazon, the companies will see to remain partners with them with this acquisition. "IBM is committed to being an authentic multi-cloud provider, and we will prioritize the use of Red Hat technology across multiple clouds" said Arvind Krishna, Senior Vice President, IBM Hybrid Cloud, in a statement. "In doing so, IBM will support open source technology wherever it runs, allowing it to scale significantly within commercial settings around the world."

IBM said that Red Hat will add to its revenue growth, gross margin and free cash flow within 12 months of closing.

Thursday, 3 May 2018

New Harvard theory: Aliens have star-powered spaceships | From the Grapevine

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New Harvard theory: Aliens have star-powered spaceships

Scientists discovered a massive radio wave, and they can't find a good explanation for it. Unless ...

If they're extraterrestrials, they're way more advanced than us.

Scientists discovered a massive radio wave, and they can't find a good explanation for it. Unless ...

A couple of scientists from the well-respected Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics recently wrote an astrophysics paper that is so awesome, it will make you want to read an astrophysics paper. The scientists have been puzzling over some weirdly strong radio wave bursts in space, and they've come up with an explanation: aliens.

"An artificial origin is worth contemplating and checking," said Avi Loeb, an Israeli-American professor who worked on the study.

It all started when an astrophysicist was combing through the archives in Australia's Parkes Observatory, and he noticed a mysterious spurt of radio activity. It was short but intense. Really intense. Like, 500 million times the power of the sun intense.

Space is full of weird light, so that's no big deal, right? Wrong, apparently. Scientists have been trying to figure out what the burst could be for 10 years, and they still don't know. Some think it's a massive, particularly weird star that collapsed into its core. Or maybe it's a solar flare that somehow managed to travel across the known universe. Or ...

Yep. Aliens. At least, that's what the Harvard-Smithsonian scientists are proposing. You can start freaking out now.

Here's the theory: There's a faraway alien civilization that uses artificial beams to power spaceships with light sails. They harness energy from a star and cool their beam machine with planet-sized buckets of water.

Cool, right? We're not talking about boring, single-celled aliens here. We're talking about an advanced civilization, way more advanced than, you know, us. Our sail-related ships are limited to the kind that stay in water.

"Deciding what's likely ahead of time limits the possibilities," said Loeb, an alumnus of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. "It's worth putting ideas out there and letting the data be the judge."

It's still a theory, but we at From the Grapevine are definitely rooting for it. Discovering alien life would mean a total change in how we view reality. Plus, we could do so much cool stuff with aliens. Like discover new things about the universe and have alien romances.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mmiZb3ndMCk

Wednesday, 2 May 2018

Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea

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Featured Topics

The country?€?s Constitution was promulgated on July 17, 1948 after a month and half of work for its enactment. The government observes it as a national holiday. The first amendment to the Constitution was made in July 1952, while the 9th and last amendment was passed by referendum on October 27, 1987.

The country?€?s Constitution adopts liberal democracy as the basic principle of governance. The Constitution guarantees the people?€?s freedom and rights under various laws. It also guarantees equal opportunities in all sectors, including politics, economy, society and culture, and recognizes the necessity of establishing a welfare state. The Constitution also stipulates that all people have the obligation to pay taxes, engage in national defense, educate their children, and work.

The Constitution states that the country should endeavor to maintain international peace. It stipulates that international treaties signed by the country and generally accepted international laws have the same effects as domestic laws. Under the Constitution, the status of aliens is guaranteed in accordance with international laws and treaties.

Department Global Communication and Contents Division, Contact Us

Tuesday, 1 May 2018

Human Bone Reveals How Much Radiation Hiroshima Bomb Released — And It's Staggering

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Human Bone Reveals How Much Radiation Hiroshima Bomb Released — And It's Staggering

This story was updated May 1 at 10:48 a.m. EDT.

On Aug. 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan, leading to a nuclear blast that instantly claimed about 45,000 lives. Now, the jawbone of one of those casualties — belonging to a person who was less than a mile from the bomb's hypocenter — is helping researchers determine how much radiation was absorbed by the bones of the victims, a new study finds.

The amount is staggering: Analyses show that the jawbone's radiation dose was about 9.46 grays (Gy). A Gy is the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter, which in this case is bone. [5 Everyday Things That Are Radioactive]

"About half that dose, or 5 Gy, is fatal if the entire body is exposed to it," study co-researcher Oswaldo Baffa, a professor at the University of S?o Paulo's Ribeir?o Preto School of Philosophy, Science & Letters, said in a statement.

Previous studies have measured other aspects of the bomb's catastrophic effects, including the radiation dose victims were exposed to from nuclear fallout (which is radioactive dust) and how the fallout affected human DNA and health, the researchers said. 

However, this is the first study to use a victim's bone as a dosimeter — a tool that allows scientists to measure an absorbed dose of ionizing radiation, the researchers said. Moreover, the technique the scientists used — known as electron spin resonance (ESR) — is a precise method that can measure radiation dose in future nuclear events, the researchers said.

The victim's jaw was found about a mile (1.5 kilometers) from the atomic bomb hypocenter in Hiroshima, Japan.

The victim's jaw was found about a mile (1.5 kilometers) from the atomic bomb hypocenter in Hiroshima, Japan.

Credit: Kinoshita et al./PLoS ONE/CC by 4.0

"Currently, there's renewed interest in this kind of methodology due to the risk of terrorist attacks in countries like the United States," Baffa said. Techniques such as this one "can help identify who has been exposed to radioactive fallout and needs treatment" in the event of a nuclear attack, he added.

Decades-long research

The new finding is decades in the making. In the 1970s, study senior researcher Sérgio Mascarenhas, who was then a physicist at the University of S?o Paulo's S?o Carlos Physics Institute, discovered that X-ray and gamma-ray irradiation made human bones slightly magnetic, according to the statement.

This phenomenon — called paramagnetism — happens because the bone contains a mineral called hydroxyapatite. When bone is irradiated, it produces CO2- that shows up in the hydroxyapatite. The resulting free radicals can then be used as a marker for radiation dose in bone.

At first, Mascarenhas thought he would use this technique to date ancient bones for archaeologists. His research was so widely lauded that Harvard University invited him to teach. On one trip from Brazil in 1972, Mascarenhas stopped in Japan so he could test the method on the remains of people from the Hiroshima blast.

"They gave me a jawbone, and I decided to measure the radiation right there, at Hiroshima University," Mascarenhas said in the statement. "I needed to prove experimentally that my discovery was genuine."

His analysis was rudimentary; the lack of advanced computers meant that the estimate couldn't separate the atomic-bomb-induced signal from the background signal. Even so,he presented the results at the American Physical Society's annual March Meeting in Washington, D.C., in 1973.

Mascarenhas was allowed to keep the jawbone and brought it back with him to Brazil.

New analysis

Thanks to new advances in technology, researchers are now able to separate the background signal from the radiation dose from the nuclear attack. [Doomsday: 9 Real Ways Earth Could End]

"The background signal is a broad line that may be produced by various different things and lacks a specific signature," Baffa said. "The dosimetric signal is spectral. Each free radical resonates at a certain point on the spectrum when exposed to a magnetic field."

When the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb, the weapon exploded about 1,900 feet (580 meters) above Hiroshima, Live Science previously reported. The person whose jaw the researchers examined was about 0.9 miles (1.5 kilometers) from the bomb's hypocenter, or the spot below the bomb's blast.

To study the bone, the researchers removed a small piece that was used in the previous study and then irradiated that piece in the lab, a process known as the additive dose method.

"We added radiation to the material and measured the rise in the dosimetric signal," Baffa said. By extrapolating from this signal, the researchers were able measure other samples, including different parts of the jawbone.

This technique allowed them to determine the radiation dose the bone received, which was similar to the dose distribution found in different materials around Hiroshima, including wall bricks and roof tiles, the researchers said.

"The measurement we obtained in this latest study is more reliable and up to date than the preliminary finding, but I'm currently evaluating a methodology that's about a thousand times more sensitive than" ESR, Mascarenhas said. "We'll have news in a few months."

The study was published online Feb. 6 in the journal PLOS ONE.

Editor's Note: This story was updated to correct the process that produces CO2- in irradiated bone. CO2- is not produced when CO2 loses electrons.

Original article on Live Science.

Mueller Has Dozens of Inquiries for Trump in Broad Quest on Russia Ties and Obstruction - The New York Times

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Mueller Has Dozens of Inquiries for Trump in Broad Quest on Russia Ties and Obstruction

Robert S. Mueller III is said to be trying to determine whether the president had criminal intent when he fired James B. Comey, the F.B.I. director.J. Scott Applewhite/Associated Press

WASHINGTON — Robert S. Mueller III, the special counsel investigating Russia's election interference, has at least four dozen questions on an exhaustive array of subjects he wants to ask President Trump to learn more about his ties to Russia and determine whether he obstructed the inquiry itself, according to a list of the questions obtained by The New York Times.

[Read the questions here.]

The open-ended queries appear to be an attempt to penetrate the president's thinking, to get at the motivation behind some of his most combative Twitter posts and to examine his relationships with his family and his closest advisers. They deal chiefly with the president's high-profile firings of the F.B.I. director and his first national security adviser, his treatment of Attorney General Jeff Sessions and a 2016 Trump Tower meeting between campaign officials and Russians offering dirt on Hillary Clinton.

But they also touch on the president's businesses; any discussions with his longtime personal lawyer, Michael D. Cohen, about a Moscow real estate deal; whether the president knew of any attempt by Mr. Trump's son-in-law, Jared Kushner, to set up a back channel to Russia during the transition; any contacts he had with Roger J. Stone Jr., a longtime adviser who claimed to have inside information about Democratic email hackings; and what happened during Mr. Trump's 2013 trip to Moscow for the Miss Universe pageant.

President Trump said on Twitter on Tuesday that it was "disgraceful" that questions the special counsel would like to ask him were publicly disclosed, and he incorrectly noted that there were no questions about collusion. The president also said collusion was a "phony" crime.

The questions provide the most detailed look yet inside Mr. Mueller's investigation, which has been shrouded in secrecy since he was appointed nearly a year ago. The majority relate to possible obstruction of justice, demonstrating how an investigation into Russia's election meddling grew to include an examination of the president's conduct in office. Among them are queries on any discussions Mr. Trump had about his attempts to fire Mr. Mueller himself and what the president knew about possible pardon offers to Mr. Flynn.

"What efforts were made to reach out to Mr. Flynn about seeking immunity or possible pardon?" Mr. Mueller planned to ask, according to questions read by the special counsel investigators to the president's lawyers, who compiled them into a list. That document was provided to The Times by a person outside Mr. Trump's legal team.

A few questions reveal that Mr. Mueller is still investigating possible coordination between the Trump campaign and Russia. In one of the more tantalizing inquiries, Mr. Mueller asks what Mr. Trump knew about campaign aides, including the former chairman Paul Manafort, seeking assistance from Moscow: "What knowledge did you have of any outreach by your campaign, including by Paul Manafort, to Russia about potential assistance to the campaign?" No such outreach has been revealed publicly.

Jay Sekulow, a lawyer for Mr. Trump, declined to comment. A spokesman for the special counsel's office did not respond to a request for comment.

The questions serve as a reminder of the chaotic first 15 months of the Trump presidency and the transition and campaign before that. Mr. Mueller wanted to inquire about public threats the president made, conflicting statements from Mr. Trump and White House aides, the president's private admissions to Russian officials, a secret meeting at an island resort, WikiLeaks, salacious accusations and dramatic congressional testimony.

The special counsel also sought information from the president about his relationship with Russia. Mr. Mueller would like to ask Mr. Trump whether he had any discussions during the campaign about any meetings with President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia and whether he spoke to others about either American sanctions against Russia or meeting with Mr. Putin.

Through his questions, Mr. Mueller also tries to tease out Mr. Trump's views on law enforcement officials and whether he sees them as independent investigators or people who should loyally protect him.

For example, when the F.B.I. director, James B. Comey, was fired, the White House said he broke with Justice Department policy and spoke publicly about the investigation into Mrs. Clinton's email server. Mr. Mueller's questions put that statement to the test. He wants to ask why, time and again, Mr. Trump expressed no concerns with whether Mr. Comey had abided by policy. Rather, in statements in private and on national television, Mr. Trump suggested that Mr. Comey was fired because of the Russia investigation.

Many of the questions surround Mr. Trump's relationship with Mr. Sessions, including the attorney general's decision to recuse himself from the Russia investigation and whether Mr. Trump told Mr. Sessions he needed him in place for protection.

Mr. Mueller appears to be investigating how Mr. Trump took steps last year to fire Mr. Mueller himself. The president relented after the White House counsel, Donald F. McGahn II, threatened to resign, an episode that the special counsel wants to ask about.

"What consideration and discussions did you have regarding terminating the special counsel in June of 2017?" Mr. Mueller planned to ask, according to the list of questions. "What did you think and do in reaction to Jan. 25, 2018, story about the termination of the special counsel and Don McGahn backing you off the termination?" he planned to ask, referring to the Times article that broke the news of the confrontation.

Mr. Mueller has sought for months to question the president, who has in turn expressed a desire, at times, to be interviewed, viewing it as an avenue to end the inquiry more quickly. His lawyers have been negotiating terms of an interview out of concern that their client — whose exaggerations, half-truths and outright falsehoods are well documented — could provide false statements or easily become distracted. Four people, including Mr. Flynn, have pleaded guilty to lying to investigators in the Russia inquiry.

The list of questions grew out of those negotiations. In January, Mr. Trump's lawyers gave Mr. Mueller several pages of written explanations about the president's role in the matters the special counsel is investigating. Concerned about putting the president in legal jeopardy, his lead lawyer, John Dowd, was trying to convince Mr. Mueller he did not need to interview Mr. Trump, according to people briefed on the matter.

Mr. Mueller was apparently unsatisfied. He told Mr. Dowd in early March that he needed to question the president directly to determine whether he had criminal intent when he fired Mr. Comey, the people said.

But Mr. Dowd held firm, and investigators for Mr. Mueller agreed days later to share during a meeting with Mr. Dowd the questions they wanted to ask Mr. Trump.

When Mr. Mueller's team relayed the questions, their tone and detailed nature cemented Mr. Dowd's view that the president should not sit for an interview. Despite Mr. Dowd's misgivings, Mr. Trump remained firm in his insistence that he meet with Mr. Mueller. About a week and a half after receiving the questions, Mr. Dowd resigned, concluding that his client was ignoring his advice.

Mr. Trump's new lawyer in the investigation and his longtime confidant, Rudolph W. Giuliani, met with Mr. Mueller last week and said he was trying to determine whether the special counsel and his staff were going to be "truly objective."

Mr. Mueller's endgame remains a mystery, even if he determines the president broke the law. A longstanding Justice Department legal finding says presidents cannot be charged with a crime while they are in office. The special counsel told Mr. Dowd in March that though the president's conduct is under scrutiny, he is not a target of the investigation, meaning Mr. Mueller does not expect to charge him.

The prospect of pardons is also among Mr. Mueller's inquiries, and whether Mr. Trump offered them to a pair of former top aides to influence their decisions about whether to cooperate with the special counsel investigation.

Mr. Dowd broached the idea with lawyers for both of the advisers, Mr. Flynn and Mr. Manafort, according to people with knowledge of the discussions. Mr. Manafort has pleaded not guilty on charges of money laundering and other financial crimes related to his work for the pro-Russia former president of Ukraine.

Mr. Flynn, a retired Army lieutenant general who was ousted from the White House in February 2017 amid revelations about contacts with the Russian ambassador to the United States, ultimately pleaded guilty last December to lying to federal authorities and agreed to cooperate with the special counsel.

"After General Flynn resigned, what calls or efforts were made by people associated with you to reach out to General Flynn or to discuss Flynn seeking immunity or possible pardon?" Mr. Mueller planned to ask.

A version of this article appears in print on , on Page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: Questions for President Show Depth of Inquiry Into Russian Meddling. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe

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Sketches from scratches is a provocative blogspot that has grown out of the Wuh Lax experience. It is eclectic, which means that it might consider just about anything from the simple to the extremely difficult. A scratch can be something that is troubling me or a short line on paper. From a scratch comes a verbal sketch or image sketch of the issue or subject. Other sites have other stuff that should really be of interest to the broad reader. I try to develop themes, but variety often comes before depth.... more!